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  1. #581
    All set for the future: New aircraft technologies are taking to the skies
    7. Haziran 2016 0 Yorumlar

    Viktoria Steininger
    Holds editorial responsibility for blog topics, is researching and writing articles. Her stories give insights into the world of the voestalpine Group.
    If you think flying today is exciting, you’re in for some special surprises as the aviation industry moves forward. Aircraft in the future might look like today’s planes, but they will be completely different in terms of the technology they will use.

    Future Aviation
    Picture: Stephen Chang

    The aircraft of the future will be faster, quieter, and more comfortable.

    They will weigh less, too. More airframes will be made completely of woven mats of carbon embedded in plastic called “composites.” These materials offer both lightness and exceptional strength. Smooth, rivetless surfaces make for superior aerodynamics.

    Always online
    All aircraft will be connected to the worldwide web almost everywhere they fly, so passengers can use their cell phones and the Internet everywhere. Brand new Ka broadband technology makes for increased download speeds, so we can say goodbye to slow loading emails, and can even watch video more easily.

    Unmanned aircraft
    Future Aviation
    Picture: Andreas Vogler

    We may even be able to forget the messages from the captain at the beginning of the journey. Pilotless passenger planes are now in flight test, such as the Centaur, a four-seat 4,100-pound turboprop. It could be in service testing pipelines within five years, and eventually pave the way for larger passenger types. As the public gets more used to driverless cars, it will also become more comfortable with the concept of flying in drones.

    Flying at supersonic speed
    We can also look forward to supersonic aircraft that can fly faster than the speed of sound. Several companies, including Airbus, are developing ultra rapid air vehicles, which can cruise supersonically at altitudes of more than 100,000ft and carry up to 20 passengers for 5,500 miles, saving time and fuel on long haul flights.

    More efficient flying
    A greener flying environment is on the horizon, too. GE Aviation is testing revolutionary new engines that will deliver supersonic speeds and fuel efficiency, and all the engine manufacturers are looking for a reduction in fuel consumption.

    Speaking of which, there are also international programmes in place creating bio-jet fuel from jatropha, camelina and micro-algae. Sustainable aviation fuels could provide up to one-third of all commercial aviation jet fuel by 2030 if produced in sufficient quantities.

    Airlines all over the world are buying up thousands of new aircraft, so air travel is definitely here to stay. It’s good to know, then, that flying will become greener and cleaner than it is today.
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  2. #582
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  3. #583
    WINGSWings develop the major portion of the lift of aheavier-than-air aircraft. Wing structures carry some ofthe heavier loads found in the aircraft structure. Theparticular design of a wing depends on many factors,such as the size, weight, speed, rate of climb, and use ofthe aircraft. The wing must be constructed so that itholds its aerodynamics shape under the extremestresses of combat maneuvers or wing loading.Wing construction is similar in most modernaircraft. In its simplest form, the wing is a frameworkmade up of spars and ribs and covered with metal. Theconstruction of an aircraft wing is shown in figure 4-8.Spars are the main structural members of the wing.They extend from the fuselage to the tip of the wing. Allthe load carried by the wing is taken up by the spars.The spars are designed to have great bending strength.Ribs give the wing section its shape, and they transmitthe air load from the wing covering to the spars. Ribtend from the leading edge to the trailing edge of thewing.In addition to the main spars, some wings have afalse spar to support the ailerons and flaps. Mostaircraft wings have a removable tip, which streamlinesthe outer end of the wing.Most Navy aircraft are designed with a wingreferred to as a wet wing. This term describes the wingthat is constructed so it can be used as a fuel cell. Thewet wing is sealed with a fuel-resistant compound as itis built. The wing holds fuel without the usual rubbercells or tanks.The wings of most naval aircraft are of all metal,full cantilever construction. Often, they may be foldedfor carrier use. A full cantilever wing structure is verystrong. The wing can be fastened to the fuselagewithout the use of external bracing, such as wires orstruts.A complete wing assembly consists of the surfaceproviding lift for the support of the aircraft. It alsoprovides the necessary flight control surfaces.NOTE:The flight control surfaces on a simplewing may include only ailerons and trailing edge flaps.The more complex aircraft may have a variety ofdevices, such as leading edge flaps, slats, spoilers, andspeed brakes.Various points on the wing are located by wingstation numbers (fig. 4-7). Wing station (WS) 0 islocated at the centerline of the fuselage, and all wingstations are measured (right or left) from this point (ininches).STABILIZERSThe stabilizing surfaces of an aircraft consist ofvertical and horizontal airfoils. They are called the4-8TRAILING EDGERIBSSPARSLEADING EDGEANf0408Figure 4-8.—Two-spar wing construction.
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  4. #584
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  5. #585
    Computer drawing of kids page link
    This page is intended for college, high school, or middle school students. For younger students, a simpler explanation of the information on this page is available on the Kid's Page.
    Computer drawing of an airliner showing the drag vector.
    Drag is the aerodynamic force that opposes an aircraft's motion through the air. Drag is generated by every part of the airplane (even the engines!). How is drag generated?

    Drag is a mechanical force. It is generated by the interaction and contact of a solid body with a fluid (liquid or gas). It is not generated by a force field, in the sense of a gravitational field or an electromagnetic field, where one object can affect another object without being in physical contact. For drag to be generated, the solid body must be in contact with the fluid. If there is no fluid, there is no drag. Drag is generated by the difference in velocity between the solid object and the fluid. There must be motion between the object and the fluid. If there is no motion, there is no drag. It makes no difference whether the object moves through a static fluid or whether the fluid moves past a static solid object.

    Drag is a force and is therefore a vector quantity having both a magnitude and a direction. Drag acts in a direction that is opposite to the motion of the aircraft. Lift acts perpendicular to the motion. There are many factors that affect the magnitude of the drag. Many of the factors also affect lift but there are some factors that are unique to aircraft drag.

    We can think of drag as aerodynamic friction, and one of the sources of drag is the skin friction between the molecules of the air and the solid surface of the aircraft. Because the skin friction is an interaction between a solid and a gas, the magnitude of the skin friction depends on properties of both solid and gas. For the solid, a smooth, waxed surface produces less skin friction than a roughened surface. For the gas, the magnitude depends on the viscosity of the air and the relative magnitude of the viscous forces to the motion of the flow, expressed as the Reynolds number. Along the solid surface, a boundary layer of low energy flow is generated and the magnitude of the skin friction depends on conditions in the boundary layer.

    We can also think of drag as aerodynamic resistance to the motion of the object through the fluid. This source of drag depends on the shape of the aircraft and is called form drag. As air flows around a body, the local velocity and pressure are changed. Since pressure is a measure of the momentum of the gas molecules and a change in momentum produces a force, a varying pressure distribution will produce a force on the body. We can determine the magnitude of the force by integrating (or adding up) the local pressure times the surface area around the entire body. The component of the aerodynamic force that is opposed to the motion is the drag; the component perpendicular to the motion is the lift. Both the lift and drag force act through the center of pressure of the object.

    There is an additional drag component caused by the generation of lift. Aerodynamicists have named this component the induced drag. It is also called "drag due to lift" because it only occurs on finite, lifting wings. Induced drag occurs because the distribution of lift is not uniform on a wing, but varies from root to tip. For a lifting wing, there is a pressure difference between the upper and lower surfaces of the wing. Vortices are formed at the wing tips, which produce a swirling flow that is very strong near the wing tips and decreases toward the wing root. The local angle of attack of the wing is increased by the induced flow of the tip vortex, giving an additional, downstream-facing, component to the aerodynamic force acting on the wing. The force is called induced drag because it has been "induced" by the action of the tip vortices. The magnitude of induced drag depends on the amount of lift being generated by the wing and on the distribution of lift across the span. Long, thin (chordwise) wings have low induced drag; short wings with a large chord have high induced drag. Wings with an elliptical distribution of lift have the minimum induced drag. Modern airliners use winglets to reduce the induced drag of the wing.

    Two additional sources of drag are wave drag and ram drag. As an aircraft approaches the speed of sound, shock waves are generated along the surface. The shock waves produce a change in static pressure and a loss of total pressure. Wave drag is associated with the formation of the shock waves. The magnitude of the wave drag depends on the Mach number of the flow. Ram drag is produced when free stream air is brought inside the aircraft. Jet engines bring air on board, mix the air with fuel, burn the fuel, then exhausts the combustion products to produce thrust. If we look at the basic thrust equation, there is a mass flow times entrance velocity term that is subtracted from the gross thrust. This "negative thrust" term is the ram drag. Cooling inlets on the aircraft are also sources of ram drag.

    You can view a short movie of "Orville and Wilbur Wright" discussing the drag force and how it affected the flight of their aircraft. The movie file can be saved to your computer and viewed as a Podcast on your podcast player.

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  6. #586
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  7. #587
    Computer drawing of kids page link
    This page is intended for college, high school, or middle school students. For younger students, a simpler explanation of the information on this page is available on the Kid's Page.
    Computer drawing of an airliner showing the lift vector.
    Lift is the force that directly opposes the weight of an airplane and holds the airplane in the air. Lift is generated by every part of the airplane, but most of the lift on a normal airliner is generated by the wings. Lift is a mechanical aerodynamic force produced by the motion of the airplane through the air. Because lift is a force, it is a vector quantity, having both a magnitude and a direction associated with it. Lift acts through the center of pressure of the object and is directed perpendicular to the flow direction. There are several factors which affect the magnitude of lift.

    HOW IS LIFT GENERATED?

    There are many explanations for the generation of lift found in encyclopedias, in basic physics textbooks, and on Web sites. Unfortunately, many of the explanations are misleading and incorrect. Theories on the generation of lift have become a source of great controversy and a topic for heated arguments. To help you understand lift and its origins, a series of pages will describe the various theories and how some of the popular theories fail.

    Lift occurs when a moving flow of gas is turned by a solid object. The flow is turned in one direction, and the lift is generated in the opposite direction, according to Newton's Third Law of action and reaction. Because air is a gas and the molecules are free to move about, any solid surface can deflect a flow. For an aircraft wing, both the upper and lower surfaces contribute to the flow turning. Neglecting the upper surface's part in turning the flow leads to an incorrect theory of lift.

    NO FLUID, NO LIFT

    Lift is a mechanical force. It is generated by the interaction and contact of a solid body with a fluid (liquid or gas). It is not generated by a force field, in the sense of a gravitational field,or an electromagnetic field, where one object can affect another object without being in physical contact. For lift to be generated, the solid body must be in contact with the fluid: no fluid, no lift. The Space Shuttle does not stay in space because of lift from its wings but because of orbital mechanics related to its speed. Space is nearly a vacuum. Without air, there is no lift generated by the wings.

    NO MOTION, NO LIFT

    Lift is generated by the difference in velocity between the solid object and the fluid. There must be motion between the object and the fluid: no motion, no lift. It makes no difference whether the object moves through a static fluid, or the fluid moves past a static solid object. Lift acts perpendicular to the motion. Drag acts in the direction opposed to the motion.

    You can learn more about the factors that affect lift at this web site. There are many small interactive programs here to let you explore the generation of lift.

    You can view a short movie of "Orville and Wilbur Wright" discussing the lift force and how it affected the flight of their aircraft. The movie file can be saved to your computer and viewed as a Podcast on your podcast player.

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  8. #588
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  9. #589
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    Computer drawing of kids page link
    This page is intended for college, high school, or middle school students. For younger students, a simpler explanation of the information on this page is available on the Kid's Page.
    Computer drawing of an airliner showing the weight vector.
    Weight is the force generated by the gravitational attraction of the earth on the airplane. We are more familiar with weight than with the other forces acting on an airplane, because each of us have our own weight which we can measure every morning on the bathroom scale. We know when one thing is heavy and when another thing is light. But weight, the gravitational force, is fundamentally different from the aerodynamic forces, lift and drag. Aerodynamic forces are mechanical forces and the airplane has to be in physical contact with the the air which generates the force. The gravitational force is a field force; the source of the force does not have to be in physical contact with the object to generate a pull on the object.

    The nature of the gravitational force has been studied by scientists for many years and is still being investigated by theoretical physicists. For an object the size of an airplane, the deions given three hundred years ago by Sir Isaac Newton work quite well. Newton developed his theory of gravitation when he was only 23 years old and published the theories with his laws of motion some years later. The gravitational force between two objects depends on the mass of the objects and the inverse of the square of the distance between the objects. Larger objects create greater forces and the farther apart the objects are the weaker the attraction. Newton was able to express the relationship in a single weight equation.

    Weight is a force, and a force is a vector quantity having both a magnitude and a direction associated with it. For an airplane, weight is always directed towards the center of the earth. The magnitude of this force depends on the mass of all of the parts of the airplane itself, plus the amount of fuel, plus any payload on board (people, baggage, freight, ...). The weight is distributed throughout the airplane, but we can often think of it as collected and acting through a single point called the center of gravity. In flight, the airplane rotates about the center of gravity, but the direction of the weight force always remains toward the center of the earth. During a flight the aircraft burns up its fuel, so the weight of the airplane constantly changes. Also, the distribution of the weight and the center of gravity can change, so the pilot must constantly adjust the controls to keep the airplane balanced.

    Flying involves two major problems; overcoming the weight of an object by some opposing force, and controlling the object in flight. Both of these problems are related to the object's weight and the location of the center of gravity. The dream remains that, if we could really understand gravity, we could create anti-gravity devices which would revolutionize travel through the sky. Unfortunately, anti-gravity devices only exist in science fiction. Machines like airplanes, or magnetic levitation devices, create forces opposed to the gravitational force, but they do not block out or eliminate the gravitational force.

    You can view a short movie of "Orville and Wilbur Wright" discussing the weight force and how it affected the flight of their aircraft. The movie file can be saved to your computer and viewed as a Podcast on your podcast player.

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  10. #590
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  11. #591
    Computer drawing of kids page link
    This page is intended for college, high school, or middle school students. For younger students, a simpler explanation of the information on this page is available on the Kid's Page.
    Computer drawing of an airliner showing the thrust vector.
    Thrust is the force which moves an aircraft through the air. Thrust is used to overcome the drag of an airplane, and to overcome the weight of a rocket. Thrust is generated by the engines of the aircraft through some kind of propulsion system.

    Thrust is a mechanical force, so the propulsion system must be in physical contact with a working fluid to produce thrust. Thrust is generated most often through the reaction of accelerating a mass of gas. Since thrust is a force, it is a vector quantity having both a magnitude and a direction. The engine does work on the gas and accelerates the gas to the rear of the engine; the thrust is generated in the opposite direction from the accelerated gas. The magnitude of the thrust depends on the amount of gas that is accelerated and on the difference in velocity of the gas through the engine.

    The physics involved in the generation of thrust is introduced in middle school and studied in some detail in high school and college. To accelerate the gas, we have to expend energy. The energy is generated as heat by the combustion of some fuel. The thrust equation describes how the acceleration of the gas produces a force. The type of propulsion system used on an aircraft may vary from airplane to airplane and each device produces thrust in a slightly different way. We will discuss four principal propulsion systems at this web site; the propeller, the turbine,or jet, engine, the ramjet, and the rocket.

    You can view a short movie of "Orville and Wilbur Wright" discussing the thrust force and how it affected the flight of their aircraft. The movie file can be saved to your computer and viewed as a Podcast on your podcast player.

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  12. #592
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  13. #593
    Aerodynamics is the study of how gases interact with moving bodies. Because the gas that we encounter most is air, aerodynamics is primarily concerned with the forces of drag and lift, which are caused by air passing over and around solid bodies. Engineers apply the principles of aerodynamics to the designs of many different things, including buildings, bridges and even soccer balls; however, of primary concern is the aerodynamics of aircraft and automobiles.

    Aerodynamics comes into play in the study of flight and the science of building and operating an aircraft, which is called aeronautics. Aeronautical engineers use the fundamentals of aerodynamics to design aircraft that fly through the Earth's atmosphere.

    Aerodynamic drag
    The most significant aerodynamic force that applies to nearly everything that moves through the air is drag. Drag is the force that opposes an aircraft's motion through the air, according to NASA. Drag is generated in the direction the air is moving when it encounters a solid object. In most cases, such as in automobiles and aircraft, drag is undesirable because it takes power to overcome it. There are, however, some cases when drag is beneficial, such as with parachutes, for example.

    To describe the amount of drag on an object, we use a value called the drag coefficient (cd). This number depends not only on the shape of the object but also on other factors, such as its speed and surface roughness, the density of the air and whether the flow is laminar (smooth) or turbulent. Forces that affect drag include the air pressure against the face of the object, the friction along the sides of the object and the relatively negative pressure, or suction, on the back of the object. For example, cd for a flat plate moving face-on through the air is about 1.3, a face-on cube is about 1, a sphere is about 0.5 and a teardrop shape is about 0.05. The drag coefficient for modern automobiles is 0.25 to 0.35, and for aircraft it is 0.01 to 0.03. Calculating cd can be complicated. For this reason, it is usually determined by computer simulations or wind tunnel experiments.
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  14. #594
    MODEL UÇAK NEDİR ?
    Çok anlamsız bir soru değil bu. İyi bir tanım yapabilirseniz nasıl bir işle uğraştığınızı daha iyi anlayacak ve daha az hata yapacaksınız.

    Öncelikle model uçak bir maket değildir. Maket uçaklar da vardır. Bunlara statik modeller denir. Gerçeğine benzer şekilde yapılır boyanır vitrine konulur ve görüntüsü ile yetinilir. Model uçak ise uçurulur.

    Oyuncaklar vardır, ucuz üretilmiş birçok aerodinamik kural dikkate alınmamış, çocukların da kullanıp eğlenebileceği uçan cisimlerdir. Genellikle pili bitene kadar ya da bozulana kadar oynanır ve heves bitince bir kenarda unutulur. Model uçak ise bir hobidir. Bazıları için vazgeçilmez bir tutkudur. Yıllarca sürdürülür, emek verilir , para harcanır, ustalık kazanılır. Yarışmalara katılınır, uluslararası yarışmalarda milli takımda ülkeler temsil edilir. Yani aynı zamanda bir spor dalıdır.

    Model uçak günün stresini atmanızı sağlayan bir hobidir. Özellikle hareketsiz yaşam süren, bilgisayar başında saatler geçirenler uçaklarını havalandırdıklarında herşeyi unutup parmaklarının ucundaki kumanda ile yönettikleri model uçaklarının yerçekimine, rüzgara karşı mücadelesini sağlarlar. Onu uçururken başka birşey düşünemezsiniz, patronunuz, ders çalışmayan oğlunuz, kredi kartı borcunuz yerde kalır. Aklınız ise havadadır. Adrenalininizin varlığını hatırlarsınız.

    Model uçak uçurma işi yer yerde her zaman yapılacak bir iş değildir. Oyun değildir. Burunlarında dakikada 15,000 devirle dönen pervaneleri, hızları, ağırlıkları ile tehlikeli bir silaha dönüşebilirler. Pervanesi olmayan ve havada nazlı nazlı süzülen 1kg ağırlığında planörler için bile birine çarptığında zarar vermemesi için belirlenmiş burun yapısı vardır.

    Model uçakçılık, hobidir, spordur, ciddi bir iştir. Zaman, para, fedakarlık ister. Size ne kadar yetenekli, becerikli, sanatkar olduğunuzu söyler. Bir çevreniz oluşur, yeni dostlar edinirsiniz, bilmediğiniz birçok yeni bilgiyi öğrenirsiniz, televizyon ve bilgisayar başında harcadığınız süre azalır.

    Model uçakları bir kaç başlık altında toplayabiliriz.

    1. Süzülücüler planör gibi motoru olmayan modelleri kapsar. Radyo kontrollü veya serbest uçan planörler vardır. Serbest modeller herhangi bir şekilde uzaktan kontrol edilmeyen modellerdir. Genellikle küçük modellerdir. Bazıları lastik kullanılarak çevrilen bir pervane ile uçarlar.

    2. Tel kontrollü modelleri pilot uçağa bağlı bir ucu kendi elinde olan tellerle kontrol eder. Control line (C/L) olarak tanımlanırlar. Model pilotun etrafında motor devrine müdahale edilmeden döner.

    3.Diğer radyo kontrollü model uçakları da bir kaç başlık altında toplamak gerekir.

    a. Bunlardan eğitim (trainer) modelleri uçurması kolay ve dengeli modellerdir. Başlangıç için yapılmışlardır. Ayrıca akrobasiye başlangıç için de ileri seviye eğitim modelleri vardır.

    b. Akrobasi modelleri, oldukça hareketli uçmak ve zor hareketleri yapabilmek için tasarlanmış genellikle ortadan kanatlı, kontrol yüzeyleri geniş modellerdir.

    c. Pylon modeller hız yapmak için tasarlanmıştır. 300km/h üstünde hız yapabilirler.

    d. Ölçekli (scale) modeller, gerçek uçaklara benzer yapılmış modellerdir.

    e. Radyo kontrollü planörleri de bu bölüme dahil etmenin uygun olacağını düşündüm. Her ne kadar elektrik motorlu planörler yaygın olarak kullanılsa da planör denilince herhangi bir motoru olmayan, süzülerek havada kalan modeller anlaşılmalıdır. Çeşitli türleri vardır, basit bir iş değildir.

    Bunların dışında motor çeşitlerine göre de modellerden bahsetmek gerekir. Kızgın bujili (glow) motorlar oldukça yaygındır, daha büyük modellerde kullanılan benzinli motorlar, jet tipi modellerde kullanılan fan motorlar ve binlerce dolarlık büyük ölçekli modellerde kullanılan türbin motorlar modelcilikte kullanılırlar.

    Uluslararası Havacılık Fedarasyonu (FAI) düzenli olarak şampiyonalar organize etmektedir. Bu yarışmalarda kullanılan sınıflandırma vardır ve sürekli yeni branşlar eklenmektedir. Herbir klasmanda yarışacak modellerin özellikleri belirtilmiş ve sınırlandırmalar getirilmiştir. Dolayısıyla bu yarışma kategorileri çoğu zaman model uçak tipi olarak da kullanılmaktadır. Örneğin F3A veya F3J modeli deriz ve ne olduğunu anlarız. Aşağıda bu sınıflandırma görülebilir. Bunu eklemekteki amacım ben böyle birşey alayım ya da yapayım dediğinizde kafanızdaki uçuş şekline uygun modeli kolay tanımlayabilmenizdir. Tabii ki FAI standartları yarışmalara katılmak için geçerli. Bu yüzden istersek oradaki sınırları aşabiliriz. Klasmanların yanına açıklama eklemedim çinkü internetten kolayca ulaşabileceğiniz bilgilerdir.

    Model Uçak
    Yorum Yaz
    Projelerimiz
    güretekin danişmentgazioğlu-1957-istanbul
    Anasından model uçakcı doğmuş,sonradan olmalardan değil.

  15. #595
    güretekin danişmentgazioğlu-1957-istanbul
    Anasından model uçakcı doğmuş,sonradan olmalardan değil.

  16. #596
    güretekin danişmentgazioğlu-1957-istanbul
    Anasından model uçakcı doğmuş,sonradan olmalardan değil.

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